Credit for the establishment of hospital and training system must be given to the ancient Persians, as they founded the first teaching hospital in Gundishapur where medical students practiced on patients under the supervision of physicians. The Academy of Gondishapur was established in the 3rd century AD under the rule of Sassanid kings and continued its scholarly activities up to four centuries after Islam came to Iran. The history of Iranian medicine can be traced back to Zoroastrian teachings which maintained many of its original Aryan traditions and beliefs. Fascinating stuff Blam. Mercury. ����G��"���,E�� Avestan texts tell of consultation among the surgeons, herbalists and psychiatrists which indicates a form of medical association at the time. 185 0 obj <>stream Beginning in ancient times Persia has been a center of scientific achievement and was often the conduit of knowledge from China and India in the East to Greece and Rome in the West. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) (Persian: طب سنتی‌ ایرانی‎, romanized: tebbe sonnati-e irāni), also known as Persian traditional medicine or Iranian traditional medicine, is one of the most ancient forms of traditional medicine. Khayyam (1048-1131 AD) was a renowned astronomer who contributed to mathematics and calendar reform. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. The Persians had mastered the technique of building and using the yakhchalby 400 BC. Let's learn more about the daily life of the ancient Persians. The scientific method had not yet been created, so any correlation of the prescriptions in these books with modern science was more or less a coincidence. Many modern-day Iranian herbalists use reference books inherited from generations past, and still prescribe plants such as Borage, Sweet Marjoram, Fenugreek and Chicory as treatment. 165 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5FECC63BD3C9944F83194D7D33BCF1CE>]/Index[101 85]/Info 100 0 R/Length 246/Prev 563872/Root 102 0 R/Size 186/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Medical science, anatomy, dentistry, astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, military command, architecture, agriculture and irrigation were taught in Greek or Syriac and later Pahlavi in the school. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Persia was often involved in developments in ancient Greek and Indian medicine; pre- and post-Islamic Iran have been involved in medicine as well. Some Persian manuscripts, such as the Canon of Avicenna and Liber continent of Razes, were still the main reference books in western universities until the 17 th century AD ( 14 , 15 ). Abstract Iran is an ancient country, known as the cradle of civilization. Farabi also known in the West as Alfarabius (872-951 AD), is noted for his contributions to psychology. The Persepolis Fortification Tablets (PFT) were stone tablets found in the ruins of Persepolis. Image Credit: eartharchitecture While you cannot exactly compare the Yakhchal with modern generation refrigerator, this ancient evaporation cooler was one of the many marvelous Persian inventions man has ever seen. Ancient Persia. The existence of hot and cold nature have been traced in many traditional medical theories such as Chinese, Arabic, Greek, Persian, Roman, etc. The Roman Empire began around 800 B.C.E. This led to the ancient men in Persia coming up with a rather unique way to store the ice made in winter to be used in … Ancient Iranian had used a variety of anesthetic agents from which Wine (Alcohol) alone or along with Hashish and also other herbal medicines had been considered for causing sleepiness, lethargy, numbness and anesthesia. Iranian medicine, which combined medical traditions from Greece, Egypt, India and China for more than 4000 years, became the foundation of the medical practices of European countries during the 13th century. Anesthesia in Ancient Persian Medicine. Persia was a cradle of science in ancient times. Persia is a hot country and summer can be quite harsh. Medicine and allied sciences were well-developed in this civilization. Treatment consisted of verbal communication, the reading of poetry, listening to music and the recitation of prayers, including ones from the holy books of other nations, which were designed to console and heal the patient. ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Hundreds of Mobeds and physicians from Persia and other countries attended this congress, a historical event which Ferdowsi versified in Shahnameh. These forces of good stood in opposition to the evil spirit of chaos. Using thick, heat-resistant construction materials, the subterranean stor… But the ancient Persian medicine, which is an interesting feature in the study of Oriental civilization, flourished in the period in which the great empire extended its power from the Mediterranean to the shores of the Indus, from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Nope. Bangha, extracted from Cannabis Indica seeds, has hallucinatory effects and was used as an anesthetic. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. The origin of herbal medicine predates the development of agriculture and cultivation in Iran, yet some believe that the ancient Persians were the first to document the properties of herbs and to use plants to cure diseases. The best teachers of medicine and astrology were Iranian Magi and Mobeds (Zoroastrian priests) who passed their knowledge on to their pupils from one generation to the next. A Mazdean physician-in-training was required to treat and cure three non-Mazdean patients before receiving permission to treat Mazdeans. Medicine. Gundishapur scholars and graduates were appointed to important governmental positions. The international university, founded in 271 AD by Shahpour I, was a center of learning and study in the fields of science and medicine. Disclaimer: Avestan scriptures did not restrict giving treatment to Mazdeans alone. Therefore, the medicine of the body consists of keeping the body in good health and re-establishing balance and the medicine of the soul involves curing the body and preserving it from sin. According to Avestan texts, King Jamshid was the physician who initiated the custom of bathing with hot and cold water. The Sassanid ruler Khosrow Anushiravan (531 - 578 AD) who took an interest in the school and the advancement of medicine sent the Iranian physician Burzuyah to India to obtain medical and scientific books and translate them into the Pahlavi language. The history of medicine in Iran goes back to the existence of a human in this country, divided into three periods: pre-Islamic, medieval, and modern period. %PDF-1.3 %���� The ancient Persian culture awarded a preponderant importance to the decorative aspect in their art; which they used as resource and vehicle of expression with a deep philosophical meaning about life. Surgical procedures, difficult and dangerous even in the present time, were much more so in the past when it was not possible to properly anaesthetize patients and medical instruments were rudimentary. The history of medicine in Iran is as old and as rich as its civilization. Wild rue and frankincense were always burned inside houses to kill insects and bacteria, a custom which continues to this today. h��WMo7�+{l����%�@��ԍQ'(��=>��F^ԒIA����7�\�d9��K9���Ù����P�Ua*�X� � This well-organized medical institute was operated by a director, medical staff, pharmacists and servants, and upon its portal was engraved "knowledge and virtue are superior to sword and strength.". According to the Zâdspram, a Pahlavi text of the ninth century AD, there are thousands of species of medicinal plants created by Ahura Mazda for the prevention of thousands of sicknesses created by Ahriman and that the best of these plants is haoma (Vedic soma). The English word "magic" is derived from the Magi, the Persian priest magicians. Gundishapur, mentioned in Ferdowsi's (935 - 1020 AD) eternal epic Shahnameh (Book of Kings), was located near the city of Susa. Materials and methods: Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. It’s the cataloging in ancient medicine that gives us the first known recorded use of the word “petroleum.” The Persian polymath Ibn Sina (c.980-1037), who was known in the West as Avicenna, discussed medicinal petroleum in his enormously influential encyclopedia of medicine. It can be inferred from these books that Zoroastrians placed great importance on personal hygiene, public health and the prevention of contagious diseases. Iranians refrained from polluting the four elements. endstream endobj 102 0 obj <> endobj 103 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 104 0 obj <>stream The first physician as documented by Avestan texts was Vivangahan, followed by Abtin, Atrat and Purshaspa. Aloeswood was used in the treatment of cardiac disease and irregular heartbeat. Current medicine is the last ring of a long chain of progress of medical sciences in various civilizations during history. The Ordibehesht Yasht classifies physicians under five categories: This physician was in charge of the well-being of the city, preventing the spread of contagious diseases by quarantining, keeping the four sacred elements of water, wind, earth and fire free from contamination, and making sure the sanitation of houses was maintained. In 550 AD, the world's first medical conference was held on Anushiravan's order in Ctesiphon. You may have heard a little about the ancient Persian wars or epic events. posters and do not necessarily represent the opinion of Free Republic or its The yakhchal is an ancient evaporation cooler which has a two-fold meaning: yakh means “ice” and chal means “pit.” These ancient refrigerators were mainly built and used in Persia. It was an important cultural and scientific center of the Sassanid era (226 - 652 AD) and scholars from various countries, one of whom was Diogenes, studied different fields including medicine at the university. 0 Ancient Persia These peoples belonged to the linguistic family of the Indoeuropeans or Aryans also integrated by the Hittites, the Mitanni, the Kassites, the Ionians, the Eolians and the Achaeans among others. endstream endobj startxref Opinions posted on Free Republic are those of the individual The library of the university known as the 'city of Hippocrates' consisted of eight floors and 259 halls containing an estimated 400,000 books. During the Achaemenid era (559-330 BCE), the 21 books of Avesta encompassing 815 chapters were an encyclopedia of science consisting of medicine, astronomy, law, social science, philosophy, general knowledge, logic and biology. This period and its peoples is vastly overlooked in the Western world. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal But far fewer know of Shennong, Avicenna, and Andreas Vesalius – some of the lesser-known figures to have transformed the face of ancient medicine. There are also elements of … Avestan texts list not only the various parts of plants such as roots, stems, scales, leaves, fruit and seeds used for treatment but also indicate which plant is the remedy for each disease. Wellll, heydilly ho, neighborino. The Persians, who lived in an empire stretching from the Indus valley in the east to the Aegean Sea in the west with considerable variation in climate and vegetation, became familiar with a vast range of medicinal plants. The sixth book of Zend-Avesta contains some of the earliest records of the history of ancient Iranian medicine. These outstanding scholars are among the many whose names will forever shine in the history of medicine and science and will always be revered by the Iranian people. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), a prolific genius, introduced systematic experimentation into the study of physiology, experimental medicine, evidence based medicine, clinical trials, risk factor analysis, the idea of a syndrome and contributed to clinical pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. %%EOF exemption for fair use of copyrighted works. The roots of this eating habit go back to Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) which is the traditional medicine practised in Iran for over 2000 years. Among them, Persia was one of the oldest civilizations in history, and dates back to about 10000 years ago (1). Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. Here we shed light on these men and others that may not be as popular as Hippocrates but have certainly had as much of an impact on changing our ancestor’s understanding of health care. Referring to a foreign physician when a Persian one was at hand was considered a sin, and a physician's fee for service was based on the patient's income while the fee for treating a priest was his pious blessing. k�tKb��q��x_��'���ŧZ��7����k�}�J��9�l�L�ᨼ���翨�S�5�,��ʘ" ���8h]T�O�1�Z�)Kεk�?����@2Y)�������l����3��{|%�(����=0�db�C@E���F ��u������7R� ׆�vny�����W��D��@��N c��ܨN�n��� U�����9��st�ks@���^�3�hx���|ǡ�Y�$z���$F��� �d��. The medical history of ancient Persia can be divided into three distinct periods. This physician used holy words and prayers to cure patients suffering from a sickness of body and soul which could not be cured with herbs. This was supplemented by Avicenna's extensive medical experiences. The Vendidad in fact devotes most of the last chapters to medicine. Abstract . That’s what can happen when people play with fire. The Vendidad tells of three kinds of medicine practiced; medicine by the knife (surgery), medicine by herbs, and medicine by divine words, which according to the sacred text, is the best form of the three. Razi, known in the West as Razes (865-925 AD), considered the father of pediatrics and a pioneer of neurosurgery and ophthalmology, discovered and refined the use of ethanol in medicine. In the early Islamic era (9 - 12 th century AD), Persian medicine flourished and became the main paradigm of medicine in the east and west . The practice and study of medicine in Iran has a long and prolific history. mM�+H,�+]Xm�1g���R i� ;’). The Avesta mentions several medicinal herbs including basil, chicory, sweet violet, and peppermint, while Bundahishn cites the names of thirty sacred medicinal plants. Ahura Mazda, source of al… However, according to Iranian traditional medicine most healthy people can stay hydrated by drinking water and other fluids whenever they feel thirsty, for instance in hot days, and after exercising or sweating. The minister of health (Iran Dorostbod) was chosen from among the best physicians, and the minister of education (Iran Farhangbod), was an accomplished scholar of philosophy, logic, mathematics or psychology. In this way physicians were taught to treat any and all patients, whether friend or foe. He wrote the first treatises on social psychology. The ancient Persian Art. Rue was once a popular remedy for earache, easing shaking fits and joint pain; it was also used to disinfect the house. Some of the earliest practices of ancient Iranian medicine have been documented in the Avesta and other Zoroastrian religious texts. The structure above the ground was dome-shaped and had a subterranean storage space. Mercury is notorious for its toxic properties, but it was once used as a common elixir and … Archeological excavations in the Burnt City in Sistan have yielded skulls that show signs of surgery. producers (Exirwas known as an ancient immortal medicine).29Bal’ami, the famous historian and the prime minister of Samanid dynasty (10th century AD), called him Jamasp al hakim(Jamasp, the great scientist) and considered him an expert in medicine, geometry and philosophy.30 The Aryan tribes who settled in the Iranian Plateau and environs brought with them a polytheistic religion whose supreme being was Ahura Mazda (Lord of Wisdom) with many other lesser gods and spirits under his dominion. Fresh fig a treatment for constipation . Ties into the early period of the Indian (red dot, not feather) cultures. The university was a gathering place for great scientists and physicians from all civilizations of the ancient world, a breeding ground for ideas and innovations. Ancient Iranian religion, diverse beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Hotan, China).. Avicenna’s Canon brilliantly synthesises Islamic medicine with that of Hippocrates (460 – 370 BC) and Galen (129 – 200 AD). Posted on 01/29/2008 1:14:16 PM PST by blam, The History of medicine in ancient Persia, Mon, 28 Jan 2008 15:18:00 By Hedieh Ghavidel, Press TV, Tehran. 4800-Year-Old Artificial Eyeball Discovered in Burnt City.LINK. Frankincense was used for inhalation therapy. Similar to modern-day pathologist/coroners, their duties included examining the dead, performing autopsies when required, the issuance of burial licenses and ascertaining the cause of death with an eye toward finding cures for future cases. Abdolhasan Kazemi, Mostafa Kazemi, Bahram Samadi Rad, Majid Khalili. This decorative aspect shows the daily events of the man in his perennial struggle for survival. Your problem's nothing a little "Nedicine" won't fix... FreeRepublic.com is powered by software copyright 2000-2008 John Robinson. But have you ever wondered about their regular, daily life? h�b```f``z���� �� ̀ ���,o����ڳJ�������tw�҈�����(Yqa�U�ɢ%'�%.pb]����+k�VDLX�����H�Y�Π�^�&�F�r�h``��`DC���w�i; 0�10�J0d�� �}������7����ͱY��;�{�p�K�B�$��\��>qvr�p��p�����|)`-�\���t��ja� �X�•ܜ\�\%\'�6sKp�r?���B��7�z�W�38��9���9oq�p pn�2�.������Y�)������9�s��&-��n( ��WV� 0 �Gn< They would not bathe or wash dirty objects in flowing water, and urinating or spitting into water was considered a great sin. Thanks for posting this. Odorous materials were never thrown into the fire. h�bbd```b``��Q`v�dK��� �)D�ƁHF?�x#X|X���0&;A��+�dl����H>N��"���H�] ��>�]1��Azy6���`��t ����j��A�x��`�X �Fn�i�`�H}�rN`�b����Al�� Rd�U���Y &�����l�-�;���Zf��I��x�!ƻL��̗��9��M6���6�H�� F`,|�?#���L�� d�)= In ancient times, it was the site chosen by two peoples to settle and develop their civilization: the Medes and the Persians. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. 270. Persian scientists contributed to the current understanding of nature, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. During this period, Persian medicine was undoubtedly in contact with Greek medicine. Haoma (Ephedra Vulgaris) is indigenous to the Iranian plateau and contains a large quantity of Ephedrine which is effective in the treatment of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Skeletal remains of the woman were found in grave number 6705 of Burnt City’s cemetery. It was an important medical centre of the 6th and 7th centuries and a prominent example of higher education model in pre-Islam Iran. Ancient Persians enjoyed a time of rich cultures and lifestyles, exciting firsts, and advancements of the day. All materials posted herein are protected by copyright law and the Gundishapur physicians were required to pass special examinations to obtain a license for practicing medicine. and existed for around 1,200 years. Among these, the most popular were Mithra (god of covenants and the rising sun), Anahita (goddess of fertility, health, water, and wisdom, Atar, (god of fire), and Hvar Khsata (sun god/god of the full sun). Among the torchbearers of ancient Persia's scientific heritage are Mohammad Zakaria Razi, Abu Nasr Farabi, Omar Khayyam and Avicenna, who used this knowledge to make further discoveries of benefit to all humankind. Announcing this news, director of Burnt City archaeology excavation team, Mansur Sajadi, said that this eyeball belongs to a sturdy woman who was between 25 to 30 years of age at the time of death. The age-old school is still a center of knowledge in Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran. Mani, Roozbeh, and Bozorgmehr are among the other notable Persian physicians named in the Avesta. S cience including medicine has a long history in Middle and Near East and goes back to the ancient Mesopotamian period (Beginning with Sumer 3000BC). Although Arabic remains the primary language used for scientific writing in the Islamic world, many scholars have also produced a range of scientific manuscripts and works in the Persian language. There are many cuneiform tablets from cities as ancient as Uruk (2500 BC). There are also elements of ancient Persian, Mesopotamian and Indian medicine. k�d�����M��T����W�iy^_�.m����Cm�E�94�P�p�\�o?���Qg����У�l��Le��!��z�*b����Wu3�m���[ɁѡO��u��|�:>��uy�},�BD�EĔ W"=i�j�A{��3o�S{�����wʹ^��?�ϧ�����t5�k��f���P��U=� [��v,����b4����e��/(�yv=�if���fv4[6���f�\��/ �4DQN(�����-�u��۔����w�ˋ��\/~[��E=�����%w��� In the Avesta, science and medicine rise above class, ethnicity, nationality, race, gender and religion. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Persians made important contributions to algebra and chemistry, invented the wind-power machine, and … 101 0 obj <> endobj Garlic was used to reduce blood pressure, combat heart disease and treat infections. Ancient Persian physicians believed that good health is the result of the 'right' measure of the elements of humor, and that sickness is the product of their excess or deficiency. Was the physician who initiated the custom of bathing with hot and cold water potential usage in the ruins Persepolis... 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Practices of ancient Iranian medicine have been documented in the Burnt City in Sistan have yielded skulls that show of!